5. Customization

Axes has multiple options for customization including customizing the attempt tracking and lockout handling logic and lockout response formatting.

There are public APIs and the whole Axes tracking system is pluggable. You can swap the authentication backend, attempt tracker, failure handlers, database or cache backends and error formatters as you see fit.

Check the API reference section for further inspiration on implementing custom authentication backends, middleware, and handlers.

Axes uses the stock Django signals for login monitoring and can be customized and extended by using them correctly.

Axes listens to the following signals from django.contrib.auth.signals to log access attempts:

  • user_logged_in

  • user_logged_out

  • user_login_failed

You can also use Axes with your own auth module, but you’ll need to ensure that it sends the correct signals in order for Axes to log the access attempts.

Customizing authentication views

Here is a more detailed example of sending the necessary signals using and a custom auth backend at an endpoint that expects JSON requests. The custom authentication can be swapped out with authenticate and login from django.contrib.auth, but beware that those methods take care of sending the necessary signals for you, and there is no need to duplicate them as per the example.


from django import forms

class LoginForm(forms.Form):
    username = forms.CharField(max_length=128, required=True)
    password = forms.CharField(max_length=128, required=True)


from django.contrib.auth import signals
from django.http import JsonResponse, HttpResponse
from django.utils.decorators import method_decorator
from django.views import View
from django.views.decorators.csrf import csrf_exempt

from axes.decorators import axes_dispatch

from example.forms import LoginForm
from example.authentication import authenticate, login

@method_decorator(axes_dispatch, name='dispatch')
@method_decorator(csrf_exempt, name='dispatch')
class Login(View):
    Custom login view that takes JSON credentials

    http_method_names = ['post']

    def post(self, request):
        form = LoginForm(request.POST)

        if not form.is_valid():
            # inform django-axes of failed login
                    'username': form.cleaned_data.get('username'),
            return HttpResponse(status=400)

        user = authenticate(

        if user is not None:
            login(request, user)


            return JsonResponse({
            }, status=200)

        # inform django-axes of failed login
                'username': form.cleaned_data.get('username'),

        return HttpResponse(status=403)


from django.urls import path
from example.views import Login

urlpatterns = [
    path('login/', Login.as_view(), name='login'),

Customizing username lookups

In special cases, you may have the need to modify the username that is submitted before attempting to authenticate. For example, adding namespacing or removing client-set prefixes. In these cases, axes needs to know how to make these changes so that it can correctly identify the user without any form cleaning or validation. This is where the AXES_USERNAME_CALLABLE setting comes in. You can define how to make these modifications in a callable that takes a request object and a credentials dictionary, and provide that callable to axes via this setting.

For example, a function like this could take a post body with something like username='prefixed-username' and namespace=my_namespace and turn it into my_namespace-username:


def get_username(request, credentials):
    username = credentials.get('username')
    namespace = credentials.get('namespace')
    return namespace + '-' + username


AXES_USERNAME_CALLABLE = 'example.utils.get_username'


You still have to make these modifications yourself before calling authenticate. If you want to re-use the same function for consistency, that’s fine, but Axes does not inject these changes into the authentication flow for you.

Customizing lockout responses

Axes can be configured with AXES_LOCKOUT_CALLABLE to return a custom lockout response when using the plugin with e.g. DRF (Django REST Framework) or other third party libraries which require specialized formats such as JSON or XML response formats or customized response status codes.

An example of usage could be e.g. a custom view for processing lockouts.


from django.http import JsonResponse

def lockout(request, credentials, *args, **kwargs):
    return JsonResponse({"status": "Locked out due to too many login failures"}, status=403)


AXES_LOCKOUT_CALLABLE = "example.views.lockout"

Customizing lockout parameters

Axes can be configured with AXES_LOCKOUT_PARAMETERS to lock out users not only by IP address.

AXES_LOCKOUT_PARAMETERS can be a list of strings (which represents a separate lockout parameter) or nested lists of strings (which represents lockout parameters used in combination) or a callable which accepts HttpRequest or AccessAttempt and credentials and returns a list of the same form as described earlier.

Example AXES_LOCKOUT_PARAMETERS configuration:


AXES_LOCKOUT_PARAMETERS = ["ip_address", ["username", "user_agent"]]

This way, axes will lock out users using ip_address and/or combination of username and user agent

Example of callable AXES_LOCKOUT_PARAMETERS:


from django.http import HttpRequest

def get_lockout_parameters(request_or_attempt, credentials):

    if isinstance(request_or_attempt, HttpRequest):
       is_localhost = request.META.get("REMOTE_ADDR") == ""

       is_localhost = request_or_attempt.ip_address == ""

    if is_localhost:
       return ["username"]

    return ["ip_address", "username"]


AXES_LOCKOUT_PARAMETERS = "example.utils.get_lockout_parameters"

This way, if client ip_address is localhost, axes will lockout client only by username. In other case, axes will lockout client by username and/or ip_address.

Customizing client ip address lookups

Axes can be configured with AXES_CLIENT_IP_CALLABLE to use custom client ip address lookup logic.


def get_client_ip(request):
    return request.META.get("REMOTE_ADDR")


AXES_CLIENT_IP_CALLABLE = "example.utils.get_client_ip"